This article examines three alternative procedures for analyzing multitrait-multimethod matrices: the Campbell-Fiske procedure, confirmatory factor analysis, and the direct product model. The implicit assumptions, as well as the strengths and weaknesses, of each approach are presented and their implications discussed. It is proposed that one should carefully examine model assumptions, individual parameters, and various diagnostic indicators, as well as overall model fits. The implications of these recommendations are illustrated through reanalyses of data from earlier studies of consumer behavior. Potentially misleading conclusions in these studies are corrected in demonstrations of the three procedures. The results show that methods often have multiplicative effects, a finding that supports the direct product model, which has not been previously used in consumer research. The need for multiple-method, multiple-measure approaches to research is highlighted by examining the limitations of single-method, single-measure approaches to theory testing.
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